Gender: Noun and Gender, Types and Examples

Gender: Noun and Gender, Types/Kind and Examples

What is gender ?

In grammar there is a classifications of a Noun or Pronoun as Masculine or Feminine. Therefore, gender is the sexual classification in grammar. Gender comes from Latin genus, meaning kind or sort.
We know that living beings are either the male or the female sex.
A B
Tiger Tigress
Man Woman
Cock Hen
Brother Sister
Boy Girl
Actor Actress
Hero Heroine
Lion Lioness
  • The words in the first column under A are the names of all male animals.
  • And, the words in the second column under B are the names of all female animals.

Types of Gender

There are four types of gender in English: Masculine Gender, Feminine Gender, Common Gender and Neuter Gender.

1. Masculine Gender

A noun that denotes a male animal is said to be of the Masculine Gender.
Tiger, Men, Boy, Brother, Father etc.
Masculine Gender is often applied to objects remarkable for strength, violence, sublimity and superiority.
Death, time, winter, summer, the sun, fear, love etc.

2. Feminine Gender

A noun that denotes a female animal is said to be of the Feminine Gender.
Tigress, Women, Girl, Sister, Mother etc.
Feminine Gender is often applied to objects remarkable for beauty, gentleness gracefulness, fertility, softness, Sweetness and weakness etc.
The moon, the earth, spring, liberty, autumn, nature, charity, church, hope, justice, mercy, peace, religion, spring, truth, viture, names of countries, locomotive engines, cars, ships and of arts and sciences.

3. Common Gender

Besides, Masculine Gender and Feminine Gender, there is a gender which is said to be the Common Gender. In this gender, a noun that denotes either a male or a female is included.
parent, child, pupil, servant, friend, thief, relation, enemy, cousin, orphan, student, person, baby, guardian, monarch, infant, neighbour, tutor etc.

4. Neuter Gender

A noun that denotes a thing that is neither male nor female is said to be of Neuter Gender. (Neuter means neither male nor female.)
Book, pen, table, chair, room, wall, tree, paper, ball, Sword, radio, telephone, bag, cloth, cigarette, music, key, bus, auto, motor, song etc.

FORMATION OF FEMININE NOUNS FROM THE MASCULINE

There are three ways of forming the feminine from the masculine.

1. By using a diferent word:

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Father Mother Husband Wife
Uncle Aunt Nephew Niece
Brother Sister Boy Girl
Pappa Mamma Man Woman
Gentleman Lady King Queen
Son Daughter Sir Madam
Cock Hen Stag Hind
Beau Bettle Swan Nymph
Fox Vixen Widower Widowe
Bachelor Maid, Spinster Horse (or Stalion) Mare
Hart Roe Wizard Witch
Earl Countess Drake Duck
Colt Filly Dog (or Hound) Bitch
Monk (or Frian) Nun Lad Lass
Doe Buck Ram Ewe
Gander Goose Drone Bee
Bullock Heifer Bull (or Ox)  Cow
Bride groom Bride - -

2. By adding a syllable ( ess, ine, trix, a etc.):

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Lion Lioness Host Hostess
Priest Priestess Patron Patroness
Benefactor Benefactress Negro Negress
instructor Instructress Waiter Waitress
Seamster Seamstress Songster Songstress
Murderer Murderess Heir Heiress
Poet Poetess Mayor Mayoress
Peer Peeress Conductor Conductress
Enchanter Enchantress Pounder Foundress
Traitor Traitress Templer Temptress
Preceptor Preceptress Sorcerer Sorceress

3. By substituting a feminine word for a masculine in compound words:

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Peacock Peahen Billy-goat Nanny-goat
Foster-father Foster-mother Jack-ass Jenny-ass
Viceroy Vicereine Executor Executrix
Shepherd Shepherdess Viscount Viscountess
Jew Jewess Author Authoress
Count Countess Don Donna
Cock-sparrow Hen-sparrow Grandfather Grandmother
Czar Czarina Prophet Prophetess
Steward Stewardess Manager Manageress
Signor Signora Testator Testatrix
Baron Baroness Giant Giantess
Hero Heroine Sultan Sultana
Signor Signora Administrator Adninistratrix

Again, "ess" is added after dropping the vowel of the masculine ending.

Masculine Feminine
Abbot Abbess
Emperor Empress
Hunter Huntress
Marquis Marchioness
Tiger Tigress
Prince Princess
Duke Cuch├ęss
Actor Actress
Master Mistress
Votary Votaress
Land-lord Land-lady
Milk-man Milk-maid
He-ass She-ass
Man-servant Maid-servant
School-master School-mistress
Washer-man Washer-woman
Step-son Step-daughter
Buck-rabbit Doe-rabbit
Man-kind Woman-kind
Bull-calf Cow-calf
He-bear She-bear
Great-uncle Great-aunt

1. Some Masculine Nouns are used in the Common Gender

Actor, Advocate, Author, Chairman, Doctor, Hound, Lawyer, Man, Painter, Poet, Teacher, Tutor, Hunter.

2. Some Feminine Nouns are used in the Common Gender

Cow, Duck, Bee.

3. Some Feminine Nouns have no corresponding Masculine forms

  • House-wife (mistress of the house).
  • Virgin (an unmarried woman).
  • Flirt (woman pretending to make love).
  • Virago (a turbulent woman).
  • Dowager (widow with late husband's property).
  • Siren (an enticing woman).
  • Brunette (a dark-complexioned woman).
  • Prude (a woman of a affected modesty).

4. Some Masculines have no corresponding Feminines

Captain, Judge, Knight, Squire, Person.

Related Topics from Noun:

  1. Noun: Classification and Formation Of Abstract Nouns
  2. The Noun and Number: Singular and Plural Nouns
  3. The Noun and Case: Possessive Nouns
  4. Gender: Noun and Gender, Types and Examples
  5. Count Nouns vs. Non-Count Nouns